Cable & Wire Applications

A: Up to a maximum of 1000 N, the operational tensile strain for all cables and wires is calculated as 15 N of tensile load for each mm² of cross-sectional copper area. It is irrelevant whether the cables or wires employed have a solid or flexible conductor, or whether they are intended for fixed or flexible use. During laying or installing of solid conductor core cables, such as NYY for fixed installations, a factor of 50 N/mm² can be used. Example calculation of maximum tensile load for an ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 100 5 G 10 mm² (stranded flexible conductor) in operation: Total copper cross-section: 5 cores x 10 mm² = 50 mm² Tensile load in Newton: 50 mm² x 15 N = 750 N Tensile load in kilograms: 750 N : 10 = 75 kg Calculation of the resulting max. vertical cable suspension length: Cable weight, version 5 G 10 mm²: 792 kg = 1000 m Cable length, version 5 G 10 mm²: 75 kg = ??? m Max. suspension length: (75 x 1000) : 792 = 94.7 m If a cable features a separate support element, the maximum tensile load specified on the relevant catalogue page applies. Support elements are also required if a lamp, device or control console is to be affixed to a free-hanging cable. In this case, it must be ensured that the combined weights of the cable and the lamp or device do not exceed the maximum recommended tensile strain! The mechanical tensile strain or force is measured in Newton (N).
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It goes without saying that all products in our ÖLFLEX® FD and UNITRONIC® FD ranges designated as suitable for drag chain use have been thoroughly tested in our drag chain centre during development. However, due to the wide range of cable dimensions as well as the limited test chain capacity and the relatively long test duration, it is not possible to perform separate tests for each individual product article. In many cases, conducting drag chain tests until such time that the cable is damaged or destroyed is neither possible nor expedient, since a large number of cables would require several million bending cycles and would thus spend many years in the test centre before they eventually fail. We subject our FD cables to at least five million bending cycles under the strictest test conditions. This means that cables listed in the catalogue and data sheet with a flexible bending radius of, for example, 7.5 x cable diameter have actually only been tested with a test chain radius of 5 x cable diameter. Our extensive experience in this area has shown that cables reaching five million cycles can easily accomplish significantly higher cycle numbers without encountering problems. In some cases, cables have been removed from the test chain without significant damage after 11 million bending cycles, simply to make room for new test cables. Depending on individual travel and speeds, our test chains complete between 5000 and 20,000 cycles per day. Even if test logs detailing the exact number of bending cycles exist for the inspected cable dimension, these cannot be made available to customers or third parties. If a customer contacts you to obtain confirmation on bending cycle numbers for a specific product, you can request a customer letter from the product manager responsible for ÖLFLEX® FD and UNITRONIC® FD cables. This letter provides general information on the suitability of all ÖLFLEX® FD and UNITRONIC® FD cables for at least five million bending cycles as well as details on test conditions and parameters.
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A: In most cases, customers simply ask whether our cables and wires are free of silicone. What is actually being queried is whether the cables are free of "PWIS" (paint-wetting impairment substances), as silicone is not the only substance that can impede paint-coating. The main PWIS are silicones, paraffin, oils and greases. Cables and wires that contain such substances should not come into contact with any parts to be painted. The storage of such products in paint shops can also be problematic, even if there is no direct contact with unpainted work pieces; this is because substances like silicone in particular emit a lot of gas, which can settle on unpainted parts or even contaminate entire priming paint baths. The undesired consequence is that the paint fails to bond with the PWIS-contaminated sections of the work piece, resulting in the dreaded circular "craters" or "pinpricks" on the painted surface. Therefore, products containing silicone are strictly prohibited in such applications. In most cases, this restriction not only applies to cables and wires, but also to cable glands, connectors, protective conduits and other accessories. Lapp Kabel can confirm that especially the ÖLFLEX® and UNITRONIC® cables which were tested in our own laboratory are free of PWIS. However, this confirmation only applies to the materials used during product manufacture. It does not cover the potential risk of subsequent contamination with paint-impeding substances when the products are handled during transport, storage and further processing. Additional information, a list of all PWIS-inspected Lapp cable products and a pre-defined confirmation letter can be found at the following link: LABS-PWIS
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The bending radii of cables are defined according to their installation type. In the case of fixed or static installation, a smaller bending radius can be chosen than would be required for flexible applications since the cable is only bent once in the former case. In the cable industry, we generally distinguish between three installation types: Fixed installation: The cables are installed statically, in cable ducts for instance, where they are fixed and immovable. In this case, there should be no movement or vibrations during operation. The cables can therefore be bent more sharply and usually subjected to somewhat higher or lower ambient temperatures than in the case of flexible applications. Highly flexible application (e.g. permanent bending in drag chain): The bending radii specified for ÖLFLEX® and UNITRONIC® FD cables are always based on continuous flexible use in the energy supply chain. Even though all drag chains vary and have different parameters, it is possible to use the relevant bending radius, acceleration and travel to make an educated assessment as to a cable's suitability for the intended application. These specifications provide a relatively clear impression of the exact application planned by the customer. Flexible application (occasional flexing): Unfortunately, no exact definitions exist for this installation type, unlike for the fixed and highly flexible options. How often and how sharply a cable is bent in the customer's application varies from case to case. In order to reflect as many applications as possible, a relatively high bending radius is specified for this installation type. It is then largely irrelevant whether the cable is bent just once per day or moved more often, e.g. in the case of a connecting cable for a portable device that is unplugged/plugged in multiple times over the course of a day. However, to avoid situations where cables that are not designed for highly flexible drag chain use are subjected to permanent bending outside the energy supply chain, the property "occasional flexing" is used on many of our catalogue pages. This reduces the danger of cables being used in continuous flexible applications for which they are not intended.
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A: Many operators and users are unaware that special factors have to be considered when installing cables in areas with raised ambient temperatures. This not only includes the self-heating resulting from the current load, but also the material-specific behavior of the core and sheath insulation in high ambient temperatures. Non-electricians in particular are mostly not familiar with the fact that the ampacity of a cable is reduced as the temperature increases. For example, an ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 100 3 G 1.5 mm² can carry 18 A (100%) at an ambient temperature of +30°C. If the temperature rises to +60°C, the ampacity is reduced to 9 A (50%) – calculated on the basis of VDE 0298-4 / catalogue appendix table T12-1 or T12-2. Due to a complex chemical conversion process (formation of orthosilicic acid), insulation materials like silicone, which are regularly used in ambient temperatures up to +180°C, can harden and embrittle prematurely as of +100°C in the absence of adequate ventilation. If the max. permissible ampacity and associated self-heating of the cable is also exceeded, the ageing process accelerates accordingly. To counteract this effect, adequate volumes of air or oxygen must be supplied to such cables and wires when operated in high ambient temperatures. If closed ducts, tubes or pipes are packed full of cables, this can often result in premature damage as a result of disintegrated insulation and cable sheaths or even corrosion of the copper conductor.
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A: To be used underground without additional protection, cables must meet the relevant standards (as in the case of NYY cables) or at least fulfill specific constructional design requirements for this installation. The outer jacket of cables that is laid underground without extra protection must be reinforced and of a sufficient strength and resistant to both mechanical impact and hydrolysis. The minimum outer sheath thickness for direct burial depends on the cable dimension, but should not be less than 1.8 mm. As far as possible; cables that meet these requirements should still be embedded in sand or covered by a protective covering to offer mechanical protection from rubble and stones. Generally speaking, all cables are suitable for direct burial, provided that they are enclosed in suitable protective tubes and pipes and are adequately resistant to hydrolysis.
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A: Even though some customers have successfully employed standard ÖLFLEX® cables in drag chain applications, despite their not being developed for permanent flexible use in energy supply chains, we are unable to recommend such practices as no corresponding experience or test data exists. In our test centers, we only assess the suitability of ÖLFLEX® and UNITRONIC® cables with the designation "FD", which were developed specifically for such highly flexible applications. It is entirely at the customer's discretion to employ cables for unintended purposes, e g. as drag chain cables.
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A: In principle, most materials used in the cable industry are resistant to salt or sea water. Even though some plastics absorb more or less water than others, it is largely irrelevant whether the cables are made of PVC, PUR, chloroprene rubber, PTFE or even silicone. However, caution is advised in the case of some halogen-free and highly flame-retardant cables made of special, highly filled polymers. The flame-retarding additives can be strongly hygroscopic and are thus easily saturated with water. Even if the cable sheath compound displays no negative effects when exposed to sea water, not every cable is suitable for maritime use. At high sea in particular, cables are subjected to high levels of UV radiation and must be sheathed accordingly. Another factor to be considered is whether the cable only makes occasional contact with sea water or is used underwater on a permanent basis. As the water depth increases, so does the pressure on the cable. This is referred to as the water column. The pressure for a 1 meter water column is 0.10 bar. Therefore, at a depth of 100 meters, the pressure is already 11 bar (100 m x 0.1 bar = 10 bar + 1 bar air pressure at sea level). At this pressure, cables with many air cavities in the core stranding can become compressed, or the water may gradually diffuse through the cable jacket and insulation and reach the conductor. In many cases, cables intended for such applications are chosen indiscriminately due to a distinct lack of alternatives which have been thoroughly tested and approved for underwater use – ÖLFLEX® AQUA RN8 being one example. At relatively low water depths, this is generally without problems. However, deep-sea applications definitely necessitate special cables, which are designed to cope with the conditions and water pressures prevalent at such depths. Within the Lapp Group, LAPP Muller in France is one company that has specialized in the development of cables for underwater use.
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A: Vacuum technology is particularly prevalent in the coating industry, where it is used for a large number of products. Vacuums enable the application of very thin layers to the relevant product, while preventing oxidation and contamination. Today, products such as compact discs, eyeglass lenses, precision optical components, mobile telephones, tools, semiconductors and even flat screens are coated under vacuum conditions. In vacuum coating systems, it is often necessary to pass cables through the vacuum, e.g. to contact light sensors. In many cases, the evaporation produced in the negative vacuum pressure results in increased ambient temperatures, which further limits the potential cable selection. The size of the occurring negative pressure is also relevant. Many insulation and outer jacket materials already emit substances, such as plasticizers, at normal atmospheric conditions and this process is both facilitated and accelerated by the negative pressure in a vacuum. As a result, cables can harden and brittle prematurely, while the emitted substances can contaminate the entire vacuum. Due to their relatively high gas emission, plastics such as PVC, chloroprene rubber and silicone in particular are less suitable for vacuum applications. Although we have limited experience and test data with regard to vacuum applications, we would recommend the use of fluoropolymer cables made of PTFE, such as the ÖLFLEX® HEAT 260, due to their wide temperature range and very low gas emission. Plastics such as PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PI (polyimide) and PA (polyamide) are also well suited to vacuum applications, but these materials are very stiff and quite expensive, making them unsuitable for use for standard cables.
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A: ÖLFLEX® Fortis ÖLFLEX® Tray II ÖLFLEX® Control TM
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ÖLFLEX® Tray II
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Harmonized Cables ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 100 ÖLFLEX® CLASSIC 100 CY ÖLFLEX® PUR S ÖLFLEX® H07RN-F ÖLFLEX® HEAT 180 SiHF ÖLFLEX HEAT® 180 GLS ÖLFLEX HEAT® 180 H05SS-F EWKF UNITRONIC® FD CY UNITRONIC® FD CP UNITRONIC® FD 890 UNITRONIC® LIYY UNITRONIC® LIYCY
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A: ÖLFLEX® 190
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A: ÖLFLEX® Fortis ÖLFLEX® Tray II ÖLFLEX® Control TM ÖLFLEX® TC 600 ÖLFLEX® VFD Slim ÖLFLEX® VFD Symmetrical ÖLFLEX® VFD with Brake ÖLFLEX® SDP ÖLFLEX® Auto I ÖLFLEX® Auto X
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A: ÖLFLEX® Tray II ÖLFLEX® Control TM
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